Juan se queda en la reunión./ Juan stays in the meeting.
Before a verb in negative command
No te quedes en la reunión./ Don't stay in the meeting.
3. After a gerund or before the verb estar
Juan está comiéndose una manzana./ Juan is eating an apple.
Juan se está comiendo una manzana./ Juan is eating an apple.
After an infinitive or before the main verb
No queríalevantarme esta mañana./ I didn't want to get up this morning.
No me quería levantar esta mañana./ I didn't want to get up this morning.
At the end of Before a conjugated verb the verb in an affirmative command
Siéntense, niños./ Children, sit down.
NOTE: In commands addressed to nosotros, the final -s is omitted and -nos is added.
Alegrémonos./ Let's rejoice.
No nos alegremos./ Let's not rejoice.
6. Before a direct object pronoun:
Te lavaste las manos? Sí, me las lavé./ Did you wash your hands? Yes, I did wash them.
II. In a reflexive construction, since the reflexive pronoun identifies who does the action, possession is understood; therefore, the definitive article is used rather than the possessive adjective, which is the case in English.
Tienes que cortarte el pelo./ You Before a conjugated verb need to get cutyour hair (You need a haircut).
Mi esposose baña y se lave lacara./ My husband bathes (himself) and washeshis face.
III. Sentir (se)/ to feel is reflexive when used with an adjective and non-reflexive when used with a noun.
Mi madre se siente aburrida./ My mother feels bored.
Mi madre siente aburrimiento./ My mother feel boredom.
IV. The following verbs are typically used in a reflexive construction:
|Acostarse/ to go to bed|
|Afeitarse o rasurarse/ to shave|
|Bañarse/ to bathe|
|Callarse/ to stop talking|
|Despertarse/ to wake up|
|Ducharse/ to take a shower|
|Levantarse Before a conjugated verb/ to get up|
|Peinarse/ to comb one's hair|
|Ponerse/ to put on|
|Probarse/ to try on|
|Quedarse/ to remain, to stay|
|Quitarse o sacarse/ to take off|
|Sentarse/ to sit down|
V. The following verbs have slightly different meanings when used in their reflexive form:
|Abonar/ to pay||abonarse/to subscribe|
|Acordar/ to agree to||acordarse/ to remember|
|Acostar/ to put, to bed||acostarse/ to go to bed|
|Alegrar/ to cheer up||alegrarse/ to be glad, to rejoice|
|Burlar/ to deceive||burlarse/ to make fun of|
|Casar/ to marry||casarse/ to get married|
|Conducir Before a conjugated verb/ to drive||conducirse/ to behave|
|Despedir/ to dismiss||despedirse/ to say goodbye|
|Detener/ to detain||detenerse/ to stop|
|Dirigir/ to direct||dirigirse/ to address|
|Dormir/ to sleep||dormirse/ to fall asleep|
|Encontrar/ to find||encontrarse/ to be located, to meet|
|Hacer/ to make||hacerse/ to be|
|Ir/ to go||irse/ to leave|
|Levantar/ to lift||levantarse/ to get up|
|Llamar/ to call||llamarse/ to be named|
|Llevar/ to carry, take||llevarse/ to take away|
|Negar/ to deny||negarse/ to refuse|
|Parecer/ to seem, appear||parecerse/ to look like|
|Poner/ to place, to put||ponerse/ to wear, to put on, to Before a conjugated verb become|
|Probar/ to taste||probarse/ to try on|
|Quitar/ to take away||quitarse/ to take off|
|Volver/ to return||volverse/ to become, to turn around|
VI. The following verbs are used with a reflexive pronoun but do not have a reflexive meaning:
|Arrepentirse (de)/ to repent|
|Asomarse / to look out of|
|Atreverse (a)/ to dare|
|Darse cuenta (de)/ to realize|
|Empeñarse (en)/ to insist on|
|Enterarse (de)/ to find out (about)|
|Equivocarse/ to make a mistake|
|Portarse bien/ to behave|
|Portarse mal/ to misbehave|
|Quejarse (de)/ to complain|
|Tratarse (de)/ to be related to Before a conjugated verb an issue (This is only for the 3rd person)|
|Resignarse/ to resign|
VII. In Spanish there are 3 different ways of expressing the English to become or to be.
1. Volverse/ to become is used to refer to a change in physical or emotional state, but it denotes a sudden change.
La madre se volvió loca cuando el hijo fue asesinado./ The mother (became) went crazy when her son was killed.
El cielo se volviónegro antes de llover./ The sky (became dark) darkenedbefore raining.
2. Ponerse / to be, to become is used refer to physical or emotional changes.
Nos pusimos contentos cuando ganamos Before a conjugated verb el partido./ We (became) were happy when we won the game.
Sofía se puso triste cuando el novio se fue a la Argentina./ Sofía (became) was sad when her boyfriend left to Argentina.
3. Hacerse/ to be, become is used to indicate personal effort.
Me haré famoso después de esta película./ I'll become famous after this movie.
Liliana se hará doctora después de tanto estudiar./ Liliana will (become) be a doctor after so much studying.
In Spanish there are 19 prepositions and several prepositional phrases. And they are used to express a relationship between Before a conjugated verb two words. As it is in English, the use of prepositions is fairly arbitrary.
|A||at, by, on, to||Hacia||toward, towards, to|
|Bajo||under, below||Para||for, to|
|Cabe||beside, next to||Por||for|
|De||of, about, from, to||So||on, under|
|En||in , at, into, on, inside, over||Tras||after|