Before a conjugated verb

Juan se queda en la reunión./ Juan stays in the meeting.

Before a verb in negative command

No te quedes en la reunión./ Don't stay in the meeting.

3. After a gerund or before the verb estar

Juan está comiéndose una manzana./ Juan is eating an apple.

Juan se está comiendo una manzana./ Juan is eating an apple.

After an infinitive or before the main verb

No queríalevantarme esta mañana./ I didn't want to get up this morning.

No me quería levantar esta mañana./ I didn't want to get up this morning.

At the end of Before a conjugated verb the verb in an affirmative command

Siéntense, niños./ Children, sit down.

NOTE: In commands addressed to nosotros, the final -s is omitted and -nos is added.

Alegrémonos./ Let's rejoice.

No nos alegremos./ Let's not rejoice.

6. Before a direct object pronoun:

Te lavaste las manos? Sí, me las lavé./ Did you wash your hands? Yes, I did wash them.


II. In a reflexive construction, since the reflexive pronoun identifies who does the action, possession is understood; therefore, the definitive article is used rather than the possessive adjective, which is the case in English.

EXAMPLES

Tienes que cortarte el pelo./ You Before a conjugated verb need to get cutyour hair (You need a haircut).

Mi esposose baña y se lave lacara./ My husband bathes (himself) and washeshis face.


III. Sentir (se)/ to feel is reflexive when used with an adjective and non-reflexive when used with a noun.

EXAMPLES

Mi madre se siente aburrida./ My mother feels bored.

Mi madre siente aburrimiento./ My mother feel boredom.


IV. The following verbs are typically used in a reflexive construction:

REFLEXIVE
Acostarse/ to go to bed
Afeitarse o rasurarse/ to shave
Bañarse/ to bathe
Callarse/ to stop talking
Despertarse/ to wake up
Ducharse/ to take a shower
Levantarse Before a conjugated verb/ to get up
Peinarse/ to comb one's hair
Ponerse/ to put on
Probarse/ to try on
Quedarse/ to remain, to stay
Quitarse o sacarse/ to take off
Sentarse/ to sit down

V. The following verbs have slightly different meanings when used in their reflexive form:

NON-REFLEXIVE REFLEXIVE
Abonar/ to pay abonarse/to subscribe
Acordar/ to agree to acordarse/ to remember
Acostar/ to put, to bed acostarse/ to go to bed
Alegrar/ to cheer up alegrarse/ to be glad, to rejoice
Burlar/ to deceive burlarse/ to make fun of
Casar/ to marry casarse/ to get married
Conducir Before a conjugated verb/ to drive conducirse/ to behave
Despedir/ to dismiss despedirse/ to say goodbye
Detener/ to detain detenerse/ to stop
Dirigir/ to direct dirigirse/ to address
Dormir/ to sleep dormirse/ to fall asleep
Encontrar/ to find encontrarse/ to be located, to meet
Hacer/ to make hacerse/ to be
Ir/ to go irse/ to leave
Levantar/ to lift levantarse/ to get up
Llamar/ to call llamarse/ to be named
Llevar/ to carry, take llevarse/ to take away
Negar/ to deny negarse/ to refuse
Parecer/ to seem, appear parecerse/ to look like
Poner/ to place, to put ponerse/ to wear, to put on, to Before a conjugated verb become
Probar/ to taste probarse/ to try on
Quitar/ to take away quitarse/ to take off
Volver/ to return volverse/ to become, to turn around


VI. The following verbs are used with a reflexive pronoun but do not have a reflexive meaning:

NON-REFLEXIVE MEANING
Arrepentirse (de)/ to repent
Asomarse / to look out of
Atreverse (a)/ to dare
Darse cuenta (de)/ to realize
Empeñarse (en)/ to insist on
Enterarse (de)/ to find out (about)
Equivocarse/ to make a mistake
Portarse bien/ to behave
Portarse mal/ to misbehave
Quejarse (de)/ to complain
Tratarse (de)/ to be related to Before a conjugated verb an issue (This is only for the 3rd person)
Resignarse/ to resign

VII. In Spanish there are 3 different ways of expressing the English to become or to be.

1. Volverse/ to become is used to refer to a change in physical or emotional state, but it denotes a sudden change.

EXAMPLES

La madre se volvió loca cuando el hijo fue asesinado./ The mother (became) went crazy when her son was killed.

El cielo se volviónegro antes de llover./ The sky (became dark) darkenedbefore raining.

2. Ponerse / to be, to become is used refer to physical or emotional changes.

EXAMPLES

Nos pusimos contentos cuando ganamos Before a conjugated verb el partido./ We (became) were happy when we won the game.

Sofía se puso triste cuando el novio se fue a la Argentina./ Sofía (became) was sad when her boyfriend left to Argentina.

3. Hacerse/ to be, become is used to indicate personal effort.

EXAMPLES

Me haré famoso después de esta película./ I'll become famous after this movie.

Liliana se hará doctora después de tanto estudiar./ Liliana will (become) be a doctor after so much studying.

PREPOSICIONES/ PREPOSITIONS

In Spanish there are 19 prepositions and several prepositional phrases. And they are used to express a relationship between Before a conjugated verb two words. As it is in English, the use of prepositions is fairly arbitrary.

Prep. Translations Prep. Translations
A at, by, on, to Hacia toward, towards, to
Ante before Hasta until
Bajo under, below Para for, to
Cabe beside, next to Por for
Con with Según according to
Contra against Sin without
De of, about, from, to So on, under
Desde from Sobre over, on
En in , at, into, on, inside, over Tras after
Entre between, among


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